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非谓语动词复习

发布:joyce790727    时间:2015-10-14 12:34:54     浏览:1442次    [划词翻译已启用]

中考专项复习——非谓语动词

考点一、不定式

1.不定式的基本形式是to+动词原形,它具有动词的特点,即可以有自己的宾语和状语,但它没有人称与数的变化,在句中也不能作谓语,动词不定式和自己的宾语和状语构成不定式短语。

My fatherasked me not to read in bed.

2.不定式的句法作用

动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的作用,它可以作主语、宾语、宾补和状语。

(1)作主语

动词不定式作主语时,常用it作形式主语,而将真正的主语放在句末,Itbe+形容词+(for sb)+动词不定式。

It's important (for us) to protectenvironment.

注:当在kindgoodniceclever等表示人的品质的形容词后,不用for而用of

It's verykind of_you_to_help_me.

(2)作宾语

He wantsto_go_out_with_her.

注:①一些谓语动词后只能用不定式作宾语,常见的这类词表示命令、打算或希望,如:would likewantwishhopedecideplanexpect等。

Would youlike to_see_a_film this evening?

②在findthink后跟不定式作宾语时,常用it代替,而将真正的宾语放在句末。

I find iteasy to_read_English_every_day.

4.不定式常和疑问词whatwhichwhenwherehow连用,相当于一个宾语从句。

Theteacher is telling the students what_to_do.

老师正告诉同学们做什么。

He didn'tknow where_to_go. (where to gowherehe should go)

他不知道去哪里。

考点二、动名词

动名词由动词原形+-ing构成,与现在分词同形。动名词既有动词的性质,作宾语和状语;也有名词的性质,可作主语、宾语、表语或定语。

1.作主语,如:

Eatingtoo much is bad for your health.

吃得太多对身体健康有害。

注:动名词和动词不定式作主语,在许多情况下可以通用,但动名词作主语多表示抽象或多次的行为,不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。

2.其后常接动名词的动词及动词词组有finishenjoypracticeunderstandmindkeepconsidermissavoid(避免)suggestadmitbe worthhavedifficulty/problem/trouble/funwaste timecan't help/can't stopbe used to(习惯于)等。

其后既可以接动名词,也可接动词不定式的动词有lovelikepreferbeginstartcontinueremembertrystopforgethateneedallowgo on等。

介词后接动名词,如:keep...fromstop...frommake a contribution tolook forward tospend...(in)be afraid ofbe proud ofbe used forfeel likegive upbe interested input off等。

3.当needrequirewant作“需要”解时,后加动名词主动式等于不定式的被动式。

Thewindow needs cleaning.The window needs to be cleaned.

4.不定式是不及物动词时,作定语不能省去介词。

Weihai isa good place to_live_in.

I don'thave enough time to study for the test, so I have something to_worry_about.

因为我没有足够的时间为考试而学习,所以我有些担心。

考点三、分词   

1.分词的构成

分词分为现在分词和过去分词两种。现在分词由“动词+ ing”构成。过去分词的基本形式是“动词+ ed”,但也有不规则的形式。

注:现在分词表示“令人……的”,主语一般是物;过去分词表示“感到……的”,主语一般是人。

He issurprised to hear the news.The news is surprising.

 辨析:

(1)有些动词或词组后接动名词或不定式均可,但意义稍有差别。

stop to do sth.停下来去做某事stop doing sth.停止做某事

Stopthinkingplease.请停止思考。

Stopto_think about it for a moment.停下来想一会。

Iremember posting your letter.

我记得把你的信寄出去了。(信已寄出)

Pleaseremember to_post my letter.

请记住把我的信寄出去。(信尚未寄出)

Iforgot to_bring_my_homework.

我忘记带作业了。(没带作业)

Iforgot bringing_my_homework.

我忘记已把作业带来了。(作业已带来)

Hetried speaking English to us.

他试着用英语和我们谈话。

Pleasetry to do better next time.

下次设法做得更好些。

Goon to_do the other exercise after you finish this one.

做完这个练习题后,接着做另一个练习题。

Goon doing the exercise after a short rest.

休息一会儿之后,我们继续做练习。

Wedon't allow smoking here.

我们不允许在这儿吸烟。

Wedon't allow students to_go out on school days.

上学时,我们不允许学生外出。

(2)现在分词和动词不定式作宾语补足语的区别。

  我们常见的动词如:seewatchnoticehearfeelhave等,它们接不带to的不定式作宾补,表示已经完成了的或经常性的动作;接现在分词作宾补,表示动作正在进行着。

Iheard him singing in the classroom.

我听到他正在教室里唱歌。(这个动作正在进行)

Iheard him sing in the classroom.

我听到他在教室里唱歌了。(这个动作已结束)

 (3)现在分词与过去分词的区别。

在语态上,现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词表示被动意义。

thesurprising news令人惊讶的消息

asurprised man 一个受惊吓的人

amoving film一场感人的电影

themoved people被感动的人们

在时间上,现在分词表示正在进行的动作,过去分词表示已经完成的动作。

thedeveloping country 发展中国家

thedeveloped country发达国家

therising sun正在升起的太阳

therisen sun 升起来的太阳

(4)易混句式havesb.do sthhavesb.doing sth.havesth.done的区别。

have sb.do sth.意为让某人做某事have可以用letmake代替。不定式往往表示一次性的具体动作,且强调动作已经完成或尚未发生。

Thesoldiers had the boy stand with his back to his father.

士兵们让这个男孩背对他的父亲站着。

have sb.doing sth.意为让某人做某事have可以用keep代替,现在分词(doing)这个动作往往具有持续进行的含义。

Thetwo men had their lights burning all night long.

那两个人让灯通宵亮着。

have sth.done意为让某人做某事,即ask sb.else to do sth.过去分词(done)这个动作由他人(即非主语本身)来完成,含有被动意义且强调动作已经完成。

Thedriver had his car washed once a week.

那位司机每周叫人洗一次车。

 

中考典例分析

1(广安)—Pleaseremember ________ the lights when you leave the room.

—OK,I will.

Aturn off           Btoturn off      Cturning off

2Peteris busy ________ at school, but he never forgets ________ exercise every day.

Aworking; doing     Bworking;to do    Catwork; doing

3泰安)—I can't decide ________.

—Youmean the purple sweater or the blue one?

Ahow to go there            Bwhoto go with

Cwhere to visit              Dwhichto choose

4Thereare so many kinds of MP5 in the shop. We can't decide________.

Awhat to buy            Btobuy what

Cwhich to buy            Dto buy which

4(达州)Whynot ________ an English club to practice ________ English?

Ato join; to speak     Bjoin; speaking    

Cjoin; to speak       Dtojoin; speaking

5—Howabout ________in the river with us?

—SorryI can't.My parents often tell me ________ that.

Aswim; don't do   

Bswim; to do

Cswimming; not do      

Dswimming; not to do

6(通化)The woman made his son________ finally after shetold him some jokes.

Alaughed          Btolaugh             

Claugh                 Dlaughing

7Granny often tell us ________water in our daily life.

Asave     Bsaving

Cto save        Dsaves

考点训练7

非谓语动词

1(河北)I'd like you  ________ for a picnic with us.

  Ago    Btogo     Cgoing     Dwent

2(哈尔滨)As teenagerswe're old enough  ________ with housework.We can help set the tablewashthe dishes and clean our own rooms.

  Atohelp     Bhelping    Chelped

3(兰州)Danny did all kinds ofthings to make the baby  ________.

  Atostop crying         Bstopcrying

      Ctostop to cry          Dstopto cry

4(兰州)—What are on show inthe museum?

  —Some photos ________ by the children of Yushu, Qinghai.

  Ahavebeen taken             Bweretaken

  Caretaken                   Dtaken

5(兰州)We have two rooms  ________but I can't decide  ________.

  Atolive; to choose which one     Blived;choose which one

  Ctolive in; which one to choose   Dlive; which one

6(广州)The teacher told thestudents  ________  any food into the computer room.

  Anotto bring   Bnotbring   Cdon't bring   Dbring not

7(广州)—We don't have muchhomework this weekend. Shall we go out together?

  —OK. What about  ________ a movie?

   Ato see              Bseeing     Ctosee     Dsees

8(达州)Why not  ________ an English club to practice ________  English?

  Atojoin; to speak         Bjoin;speaking

  Cjoin;to speak           Dtojoin; speaking

9()At least 300 million people are usingQQ  ________  by Ma Huateng to chat on line.

  Acreate       Bcreates         Ccreating          Dcreated

10(荆州)—Areyou going to Tibet for vacation?

   —Yes. I want you to  ________ me with some information about it.

   Aoffer                   Bgive              Cshow              Dprovide

11(泰安)—I can't decide  ________.

   —You mean the purple sweater or the blueone?

   Ahowto go there       Bwhoto go with

   Cwhereto visit         Dwhichto choose

12(泰安)—Howabout going shopping this weekend, Peter?

   —Sorry. Iprefer  ________  rather than ________.

   Atostay at home; go out   Bto go out; stay at home

   Cstaying at home;go out Dgoing out; stay at home

13(广安)—Please remember  ________ the lights when you leave the room. 

   —OK, I will.

   Aturnoff    Btoturn off       Cturning off

14(定西)The boy is lookingforward to ________ a good time after the exam.

   Atohave    Bhas            Chaving      Dhave

15(安徽)There are so manykinds of computers in the shop. I really don't know  ________ to choose.

   Awhat    Bwhich   Chow     Dwhere

16(河南)Father often tells me________  too much time on computergames.

Adon'tspend   Bnotspend    Cnotto spend     Dnotspending

17(成都)—Where's your brothernow, Bob?

—Isaw him  ________ in the street a momentago and I told him ________.

Aplaying; don't do so Bplaying; not to do so Cplay; to do so

18(贵阳)Nancy is really ahardworking student. We often see her ________ books in the classroom.

   Aread    Bto read    Creads

19—Whydid you buy a radio?

   —________ English.

   ALearn          BLearninCTo learn        DBe learning

20Doctorstell people ________  their hands oftenand to stay home if they feel ill.

   Atowash    Bwashes Cwash              Dwashing

21XiaoLi said she would rather ________  joinus.

  Adid not            Bto not Cnot                Dnot to

22—Hi,Tom! Can you tell me when ________  forLondon?

   —Yes, tomorrow afternoon.

   Aleaving        Bleaves Cto leave           Dare youleaving

23—I'mvery tired these days because of studying for physics.

   —Why not ________  music? It can make you  ________.

Alistento; relaxing           Btolisten to; to relax

Clistening to; relax      Dlisten to; relax

24—IsJack in the library?

   —Maybe. I saw him ________  out with some books just now.

   Agoing  Bgo  Ctogo  Dwent

25Shewon't let her daughter ________  by theriver.

     Aplay    Bplays     Cto play     Dplaying

26—Howabout ________  in the river with us?

   —Sorry, I can't. My parents often tell me________  that.

   Aswim;don't to           Bswim;to do

       Cswimming; not do        Dswimming; not to do

27Pleasedon't forget ________  the room while Iam away in Beijing.

   Aclean        Btoclean      Ccleaned     Dcleaning

28—Dean,what time is the flight to Beijing on Saturday?

   —Wait a minute. Let me ________  in the schedule(时刻表)

   Alookat it   Blookfor it   Clook after it   Dlook it up

29Thedoctor did what he could ________  thedying man.

      Asave    Bto save    Csaved    Dsaving

30Theglobal financial crisis(金融危机) has made many people________  their money.

   Atocare for                Btookcare of

   Cbecareful with            Dtobe cared about

31—Wouldyou mind ________  my little sister whileI am away?

 —Of course not.

   Alookingfor             Blookingat

       Clooking after           Dlooking forward to

32—MayI listen to the music here, Mr White?

   —Sorry, you'd better ________  it like that.

Anot to do    Bnot do  Cdon't do  Dnot do to

33—I'vejust borrowed a CD player, but I don't know ________.

   —You can read the instructions.

Ahowto use it  Bwhere to buy it  Cwhento return it Dwhere to put it

34—Yiwuis short of water now.

   —Yes, I think it's very important for usto  ________.

   Awastewater             Bsaveand protect water

   Cmakethe water dirty      Dthrow the rubbish into the river

35Whynot ________  your teacher for help whenyou can't finish ________  it byyourself?

   Aask;write    Btoask; writing Cask; writing    Dasking; write

36I'mhungry now. Let's stop ________.

   Ahavinga meal  Bhavinga rest  Cto have a meal    Dto have a rest


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