一、引述别人的话有两种方式：一是使用引号引出人家的原话，这叫做直接引语；一是用自己的话把人家的话转述出来，这叫做间接引语。 例如： John said, "I'm going to London with my father." 约翰说："我要和父亲到伦敦去。"（引号内是直接引语） John said that he was going to London with his father. 约翰说，他要和他父亲去伦敦。（宾语从句是间接引语）
二、由直接引语变为间接引语，分以下情况： 1、直接引语是陈述句时 间接引语为that引导的宾语从句（口语中that可以省略），主句的引述动词主要有say ,tell, repeat, explain, think等。 He said , "You are younger than I."-'He said (that ) I was younger than him. 2、直接引语是疑问句时 间接引语为陈述语序：主句的谓语动词say 改为ask,或改为wonder, do not know, want to know, be not sure, be puzzled等。 （1）一般疑问句或反意疑问句变为if (whether)引导的宾语从句。 She said, "Do you often come here to read newspapers?" →She asked me if (或whether)I often went there to read newspapers. She asked me , "You have seen the film, haven't you?" →She asked me whether(或if )I had seen the film. （2）选择疑问句变为whether….or 宾语从句。 I asked him, "Will you stay at home or go to a film tonight?" →I asked him whether he would stay at home or go to a film that night. （3）特殊疑问句变为由原来的疑问词引导的宾语从句。 He asked , "Where do you live?" →He asked me where I lived. 3.直接引语是祈使句时 间接引语为不定式，作ask , tell, beg, order, warn, advise等动词的宾语补足语（don't 变为not ）. The teacher said to the boy, "Open the window."→The teacher told the boy to open the window. His father said to him , "Don't leave the door open."→His father told him not to leave the door open. [注意] （1） 有些表示建议、提议、劝告或要求的祈使句，可以用suggest ,insist等动词加以转述。例如： He said, "Let's go to the theatre." →He suggested (our )going to the theatre.或He suggested that we(should) go to the theatre. (2) "Would you mind opening the window?" he asked. →He asked me to open the window. "Why don't you take a walk after supper?" he asked . →he advised me to take a walk after supper. "Shall we listen to the music?" he asked. →He suggested listening to the music. 4.直接引语是感叹句时 间接引语为what 或how 引导，也可以用that 引导。 She said, "What a lovely day it is !" →She said what a lovely day it was .或She said that it was a lovely day. 5．如果主句谓语动词为各种现在时或一般将来时，则间接引语中的动词仍保持直接引语原来时态。如果主句谓语动词为过去时，间接引语中的动词时态按下列变化： （1） 一般现在时变为一般过去时 （2） 现在进行时变为过去进行时 （3） 一般将来时变为过去将来时 （4） 现在完成时变为过去完成时 （5） 一般过去时变为过去完成时 （6） 过去完成时不变，仍为过去完成时 [注意] （1） 如果直接引语是表示客观真理时，变为间接引语，一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如： The teacher said "The earth goes round the sun." →The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun. （2） 如果直接引语中有明确表示过时间的状语，变为间接引语时，一般过去时不改为过去完成时。如： He said to me, "I was born in 1973." →He told me that he was born in 1973. （3）如果直接引语所述事实在当时和目前同样生效，变为间接宾语时，一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如： He said, "I'm a boy, not a girl." →He said that he is a boy ,not a girl. （4）如果直接引语中的谓语动词表示一种反复出现或习惯动作，在变为间接引时，一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如： The girl said, "I get up at six every morning." →The girl said that she gets up at six every morning. （5）如果直接引语中含有since, when, while 引导的表示过去时间的状语从句，在变为间接引语时，只改变主句中的谓语动词，从句的一般过去时则不变。如： He said to me, "I have taught English since he came here ." →He told me that he had taught English since he came here. （6）如果直接引语中含有情态动词 must, need, had better以及情态动词的过去式could, might, should, would,在变为间接引语时，这些情态动词没有时态的改变。例如： The teacher said to me . "You must pay more attention to your pronunciation." →The teacher told me that I must (have to ) pay more attention to my pronunciation. He said , "I could swim when I was only six ." →He said that he could swim when he was only six.
this week(month ,etc)……that week (month ,etc)
yesterday……the day before
last week(month ,etc)……the week(month ,etc) before
three days (a year ,etc) ago……three days (a year. etc) before
tomorrow……the next (following ) day
next week (month ,etc)……the next (following ) week (month ,etc)
直接引语变间接引语面面观 一、如何变人称：将直接引语变间接引语时，常常弄不清人称变化。下面有一句顺口溜“一随主。二随宾，第三人称不更新”。“一随主”是指在直接引语变间接引语时，如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化如：She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her. “二随宾”是指直接引语变间接引语时，若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称。或被第二人你所修饰。从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语。也可以用第一人称，如：He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。 “第三人称不更新”是指直接引语变间接引语时。如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰从句中的人称一般不需要变化如：Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker。 二、如何变时态：直接引语在改为间接引语时、时态需要做相应的调整。现在时它需改为过去时态；过去时态改为完成时；过去完成时则保留原来的时态。如1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said she had lost a pen2)She said. "We hope so."→She said they hoped so.3) She said. "He will go to see his friend。"→She said he would go to see his friend。但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时，时态一般不变化。 ①直接引语是客观真理。"The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me. → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。 ②直接引语是过去进行时，时态不变。如：Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street。 ③直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语，变为间接引语时，时态不变。如：Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。" →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。 ④直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作，变间接引语，时态不变。如：He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →He said he gets up at six every morning。 ⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式（例：ought to， had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时，（例：could, should, would, might）不再变。如：Peter said. "You had better come have today。" →Peter said I had better go there that day。 三、如何变状语：直接引语变间接引语，状语变化有其内在规津，时间状语由“现在”改为“原来”（例：now变为then, yesterday。变为 the day before）地点状语，尤其表示方向性的，或用指示代词修饰的状语，由“此”改为“彼”（例：this 改为that),如：He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his. 四、如何变句型：①直接引语如果是陈述句，间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。如：She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes. ②直接引语如果是反意疑问句，选择疑问句或一般疑问句，间接引语应改为由whether或if引导的宾语从句.如：He said, "Can you swim, John?" →He asked John if he could swim."You have finished the homework, haven‘t you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework."Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" →He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike. ③直接引语如果是特殊问句，间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句（宾语从句必须用陈述句语序）。She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→ She asked me when they had their dinner. ④直接引语如果是祈使句，间接引语应改为"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如："Don’t make any noise," she said to the children. →She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea. ⑤直接引语如果是以“Let‘s”开头的祈使句，变为间接引语时，通常用“suggest +动句词（或从句）。”如：He said, "Let’s go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.或He suggested that they should go to see the film.
1.“Speak English more often in and out of class，” our English teacher said to us. Our English teacher suggested us to speak English more often in and out of class. （误） Our English teacher told /asked us to speak English more often in and out of class. （正） Our English teacher suggested that we（should）speak English more often in and out of class. （正） 简析：直接引语是祈使句，变为间接引语时，要将祈使句的动词原形变为带to的不定式，并在不定式的前面根据语气需要使用ask，tell，order等动词，其句型是：ask/tell/order someone to do sth.，但是suggest不能接不定式作宾补，只能接-ing形式或从句（从句用虚拟语气）作宾语。 2.“Don’t play football on the street，little boys，” the policeman said. The policeman told the little boys did not play football on the street. （误） The policeman told the little boys not to play football on the street. （正） 简析：如果直接引语是祈使句的否定式，变为间接引语时，要将其改为不定式的否定形式作宾补，不定式的否定形式是在不定式前面加not，而不是加do not，does not，did not等。 3.“Would you please do me the favor to carry the box upstairs？” the young woman said to me. The young woman ordered me to carry the box upstairs for her. （误） The young woman asked me to carry the box upstairs for her.（正） 简析：直接引语是一些表示请求、建议的疑问句，变为间接引语时， 也变为不定式作宾语补足语。需要注意的是应根据原句的语气选用恰当的动词。因为此处原来的疑问句用的是很客气的语气，改写后不宜用order。 4.“You clean the classroom after class today，Tom，” said the monitor. The monitor said that Tom cleaned the classroom after class that day.（误） The monitor told Tom to clean the classroom after class that day. （正） 简析：一般而言，祈使句是以动词原形开头的，但是如果说话人有意强调动作执行者，也可以在句首加上主语。我们在将其变为间接引语时不能将带有主语的祈使句与陈述句混淆起来。 5.“It’s a fine day. Let’s go to the country for a picnic，” Peter said to me. Peter told me that it was a fine day and let us go to the country for a picnic. （误） Peter said that it was a fine day and asked me to go to the country for a picnic with him. （正） 简析：当直接引语中有多种句子形式如陈述句、祈使句、疑问句等时，我们就要用不同的方式将各种句子进行转述。因为原句中直接引语前面部分是陈述句，故变为由that引导的宾语从句，后面部分是祈使句所以变为不定式作宾补。
直接引语和间接引语练习 I. 请选出正确的答案： 1. Where was Alice’s sister? I don’t know where ________. A. was Alice’s sister B. Alice’s sister was C. is Alice’s sister D. Alice’s sister is 2. What did he say? I don’t know what _________. A. did he say B. he says C. he has said D. he said 3. I don’t know ___________. A. the reason why can be B. why the reason may be C. what the reason can be D. what the reason may be 4. I wonder ___________ .which of the following is not the right choice? A. whether she will be fit for the job or not B. whether or not she will be fit for the job C. if she will be fit for the job D. what she will be fit for the job 5. Is Mr. Wu from Beijing? I don’t know ________. A. where does he come from B. from where does he come C. which city he comes from D. what city he comes from 6. Can you make sure ___________? A. that he will come here today B. when he will come here today C. will he come here today D. whether will he come here today 7. Do you happen to know ________? A. where is her address B. in which place is her address C. what her address is D. the place her address is 8. Excuse me, but can you tell me ___________? A. where can I get to the library B. where I can get to the library C. how can I get to the library D. how I can get to the library 9. John asked me _______ to visit his uncle’s farm with him. A. how would I like B. if or not would I like C. whether I would like D. which I would like 10. I’d like to know ________ Chinese. A. when he began to learn B. when did he begin to learn C. when did he begin learning D. for how long he began to learn 11. He asked _____. A. where is the railway station. B. where the railway station is C. where was the railway station D. where the railway station was 12. The inspector said, “This machine is the worst I’ve ever seen.” A. The inspector said that machine was the worst I’d ever seen. B. The inspector said that machine was the worst I’ve ever seen. C. The inspector said that machine was the worst he ever saw. D. The inspector said that that machine was the worst he had ever seen. 13. She told me this morning _____. A. how had the accident happened B. how did the accident happened C. how happened the accident D. how the accident had happened 14. The policeman asked him _____. A. what was his name B. what his name was C. which was his name D. who was his name 15. He told us he _____ a concert _____ . A. had attended ... three days before B. attended ... three days ago C. would attend ... since three days D. was attending ... for three days 16. The biology teacher said, “The leaves come out in spring.” A. The biology teacher said that the leaves come out in spring. B. The biology teacher said that the leaves came out in spring. C. The biology teacher said that the leaves would come out in spring. D. The biology teacher said that the leaves should come out in spring. 17. Do you know _____ A. what the population of China is B. how much is the population of China C. what is the population of China D. how many the population of china is 18. The teacher asked, “Where are you going, John” A. The teacher asked where was John going B. The teacher asked him where John was going. C. The teacher asked John where he was going. D. The teacher asked John where he went. 19. “My sister is coming here with us tonight.” Ann said. A. Ann said that her sister is coming here with us tonight. B. Ann said that her sister was coming here with them tonight. C. Ann said that her sister was coming there that night. D. Ann said that her sister was going there with them that night. 20. The young policeman told the boys _____ . A. never to play with fire B. not to play the fire C. not to play fire D. don’t play with the fire II. 将下列句子变为间接引语： 1. “You should be more careful next time,” his father said to him. 2. Mr. Wang said, “I will leave for Shanghai on business next month, children.” 3. “I haven’t heard from my parents these days,” said Mary. 4. The geography teacher said to us, “The moon moves around the earth and the earth goes round the sun.” 5. She said to him, “It’s time that you left here.” 6. Zhang Hong said to me, “Doctor Wang passed away in 1948.” 7. John said to his parents, “I had learned 500 Chinese words by the end of last term.” 8. The history teacher said to them, “The Chinese Communist Party was founded on July 1st , 1921.” 9. He said, “Are you a student?” 10. “Have you anything interesting I can read, George?” she said. 11. “She’s here to ask for help, isn’t she?” he asked. 12. “Where are you going?” the father asked his son. 13. “Are you sorry for what you have done?” the mother asked the naughty boy. 14. She said, “Did you meet this man at the station two hours ago, Mr. Li?” 15. “Write your names on your papers first,” the teacher said to us. 16. “Please come here again tomorrow,” her friend said to her. 17. “Let me pack the parcel for you,” he said. 18. “Don’t make so much noise in class, boys and girls,” said the teacher. 19. “What a lovely day it is!” 20. “Happy New Year to you!” he said. III. 把下列句子变为直接引语： 1. I told him that I had lost my money and that I would find it. 2. She asked whether I would be free the next day or not. 3. I asked her where she was going and what she was going to do the next day. 4. His father told him not to climb that high tree in his new coat. 5. The stranger asked me what my name was. 6. She said that she would finish her work the next day. 7. The teacher asked if we could do it. 8. The commander ordered his men not to cross the river before dawn. 9. My teacher asked whether he was coming. 10. The scientist asked me what I was doing. IV.将所给直接引语变为间接引语，每空一词： 1. “I never eat meat.” he said. He said that ______ never ______ meat. 2. “I’ve found my wallet.” he said to me. He ______ me that he ______ ______ ______ wallet. 3. “I took it home with me.” she said. She said that ______ ______ _______ it home with her. 4. The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and goes down in the west.” The teacher said that the sun ______ in the east and ______ down in the west. 5. “I met her yesterday.” he said to me. He ______ me that he ______ met the day ______. 6. “You must come here before five.” he said. He said that I ______ to go ______ before five. 7. “I bought the house 10 years ago.” he said. He said that he _______ bought the house 10 years _______. 8. “Did you see her last week?” he said. He ______ ______ I had seen her the week _______. 9. He said, “You can sit here, Jim.” He ______ Jim that he ______ sit there 10. He asked, “How did you find it, mother?” He asked her mother ______ ______ ______ found it. 11. “Where have you been these days?” he asked. He asked me _______ _______ _______been _______ days. 12. “Do you know where she lives?” he asked. He asked ______ ______ knew where she ______. 13. “Stop making so much noise, children.” he said. He ______ the children ______ ______ making so much noise. 14. “Don’t tell him the news.” she said. She told me _______ ______ ______ him the news. 15. “Are you intested in this?” he said. He ______ ______ I was interestd in ______.
直接引语和间接引语练习答案 I. 1~5 B D C D C 6~10 A C D C A 11~15 DDDBA 16~20 AACDA II. 1. His father told him that he should be more careful the next time. 2. Mr. Wang told the children that he would leave for Shanghai on business the next month. 3. Mary said that she hadn’t heard from her parents those days. 4. The geography teacher told us that the moon moves around the earth and the earth goes round the sun. 5. She told him that it was time that he left there. 6. Zhang Hong told me that Doctor Wang passed away in 1948. 7. John told his parents that he had learned 500 Chinese words by the end of last term. 8. The history teacher told them that the Chinese Communist Party was founded on July 1st, 1921. 9. He asked whether I was a student. 10. She asked George if he had anything interesting she could read. 11. He asked whether she was there to ask for help or not. 12. The father asked his son where he was going. 13. The mother asked the naughty boy if he was sorry for what he had done. 14. She asked Mr. Li whether he had met that man at the station two hours before. 15. The teacher told us to write our names on our papers first. 16. Her friend asked her to go there again the next/ following day. 17. He offered to pack the parcel for me. 18. The teacher told the boys and girls not to make so much noise in class. 19. He/ She exclaimed that it was really a lovely day.20. He wished me a Happy New Year. III. 1. I said to him, “I have lost my money . I will find it.” 2. She asked , “ You will be free tomorrow, won’t you?” 3. I asked her, “Where are you going and what are you going to do tomorrow?” 4. His father said, “Don’t climb this high tree in your new coat.” 5. The stranger asked, “ What’s your name?” 6. “I’ll finish my work tomorrow,” she said. 7. The teacher asked, “Can you do it ?” 8. The commander ordered his men, “Don’t cross the river before dawn.” 9. My teacher asked, “Is he coming?” 10. The scientist asked me, “What are you doing?” IV.【参考答案】 1. he, ate 2. told, had, found, his 3. she, had, taken 4. rise, goes 5. told, had, before 6. had, there 7. had, before 8. asked, if [whether], before 9. told, could 10. how, she, had 11. where, I, had, those 12. if [whether], I, lived 13. told, to, stop 14. not, to, tell 15. asked, if [whether], that