过去完成时(past perfect)表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。 它表示句子中描述的动作发生在“过去的过去”。 基本结构：主语+had+过去分词(done) ①肯定句：主语+had+过去分词+其他. ②否定句：主语+had+not+过去分词+其他. ③一般疑问句：Had+主语+过去分词+其他? 肯定回答：Yes,主语+had. 否定回答：No,主语+had not . ④特殊疑问句：特殊疑问词或词组+一般疑问句（Had+主语+过去分词+其他）？ 基本用法 （1）表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前完成了的动作，也可以说过去的时间关于过去的动作。即“过去的过去”。可以用by, before等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表示，也可以用一个表示过去的动作来表示，还可能通过上下文来表示。 例如： By nine o’clock last night, we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship. 到昨晚9点钟，我们已经收到200 张飞船发来的图片。 （2）表示由过去的某一时刻开始，一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态，常和for, since构成的时间状语连用。 例如： I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came. 当车来的时候，我在车站已等了20分钟。 He said he had worked in that factory since 1949. 他说自从1949年以来他就在那家工厂工作。 （3）叙述过去发生的事情，在已叙述了过去发生的事情后，反过来追述或补述以前发生的动作时，常使用过去完成时。 例如： Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine. 史密斯先生昨天去世了。他以前是我的好友。 I didn’t know a thing about the verbs, for I had not studied my lesson. 我对动词一无所知，因为我没有好好学习功课。 （4）在含有定语从句的主从复合句中，如果叙述的是过去的事，先发生的动作常用过去完成时。 例如： I returned the book that I had borrowed. 我已归还了我借的书。 She found the key that she had lost. 她丢失的钥匙找到了。 （5）过去完成时常常用在told,said,knew,heard,thought等动词后的宾语从句（或间接引语）中，这时从句中的动作发生在主句表示的过去的动作之前。 例如： He said that he had known her well. 他说他很熟悉她。 I thought I had sent the letter a week before. 我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了。 （6） 状语从句：在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中，发生在前，用过去完成时；发生在后，用一般过去时。 如when,before,after,as soon as,till/until引导的 例如： When I woke up, it had already stopped raining. 我醒来时雨已停了。 She didn’t go to bed until she had finished her work. 她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉。 注意：如果两个动作紧接着发生，则常常不用过去完成时，特别是在包含before和after的复合句中，因为 这 时从句的动作和主句的动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确，这时可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。 例如： After he arrived in England, Marx worked hard to improve his English. 马克思到达英格兰之后，努力提高他的英语水平。 （7）动词think, want, hope, mean, plan, intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法，希望，打算或意图等。 例如： They had wanted to help but could not get there in time. 他们本来打算去帮忙，但没有及时赶到那里。 We had hoped to be able to come and see you . 我们本来希望能来看看你。 （8）过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second, etc) time (that)…等固定句型中。 例如： Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him. 他刚开始演讲，听众就打断了他。 No sooner had he arrived than he went away again 他刚到就又走了。 It was the third time that he had been out of work that year. 这是他那一年第三次失业了。 时间状语 before,when,after,by+,until, once,had no sooner……than 过去完成时-语法判定 1. 由时间状语来判定 一般说来，各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有： （ 1 ） by + 过去的时间点。如： I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night. （ 2 ） by the end of + 过去的时间点。如： We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term. （ 3 ） before + 过去的时间点。如： They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday. 2. 由“过去的过去”来判定。 过去完成时表示“过去的过去”，是指过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作，即动作有先后关系，动作在前的用过去完成时，在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在： （ 1 ）宾语从句中 当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时，且从句的动作先于主句的动作时，从句要用过去完成时。在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。如： She said that she had seen the film before. （ 2 ）状语从句中 在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中，主、从句的动作发生有先后关系，动作在前的，要用过去完成时，动作在后的要用一般过去时。如： After he had finished his homework, he went to bed. 注意： before, after 引导的时间状语从句中，由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系，若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连，则主、从句都用一般过去时。如： After he closed the door, he left the classroom. （3）表示意向的动词，如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等，用过去完成时表示"原本…，未能…" We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 3. 根据上、下文来判定。 I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn't seen each other since he went to Beijing.
一、过去完成时与现在完成时的区别 现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去，以现在的时间为基点，但侧重对现在产生的结果或造成的影响，与现在有关，其结构为“助动词 have (has) + 过去分词”；过去完成时则是一个相对的时态，已过去时间为基点，它所表示的动作不仅发生在过去，更强调“过去的过去”，只有和过去某时或某动作相比较时，才用到它。 比较：I have learned 1000 English words so far.到目前为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。 I had learned 1000 English words till then.到那时为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。 — I'm sorry to keep you waiting. 对不起，让你久等了。 — Oh, not at all. I have been here only a few minutes.没什么，我只等了几分钟。（“等”的动作从过去某一时间点持续到现在） 二、过去完成时与一般过去时的区别 虽然这两种时态都表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态，但在使用时应注意以下几点： 1. 时间状语不同：过去完成时在时间上强调“过去的过去”；而一般过去时只强调过去某一特定的时间。 比较：They had arrived at the station by ten yesterday. They arrived at the station at ten yesterday. 2. 在没有明确的过去时间状语作标志时，谓语动词动作发生的时间先后须依据上下文来判断：先发生的用过去完成时，后发生的则用一般过去时。 She was very happy. Her whole family were pleased with her, too. She had just won the first in the composition competition. 3. 当两个或两个以上接连发生的动作用 and 或 but 连接时，按时间顺序，只需用一般过去时来代替过去完成时；另外，在 before ， after ， as soon as 引导的从句中，由于这些连词本身已经表示出时间的先后，因此也可以用过去时来代替过去完成时。 He entered the room, turned on the light and read an evening paper.
Ⅰ. Multiple Choices. 1．I lost the dictionary I ________． A．have bought B．bought C．had bought D．had been bought 2．The train had gone when my brother _______ at the station． A．have arrived B．arrived C．had arrived D．am arriving 3. Mary _______ of visiting her grandmother, but the bad weather made her change her mind. A．has thought B．thought C．had thought D．had been thought 4．------Did you meet Tom at the airport？ ------No，he _______ by the time I ______ there． A．has left；got B．had left；arrived C．left；arrived D．left；had got 5．-------Why didn’t Tom attend the meeting yesterday？ -------He __________ Beijing． A．has gone to B．had gone to C．went to D．had been to 6．-------I _______ to come to help you． ------But you didn’t come． A．have meant B．had meant C．meant D．will mean 7．Finally one of my friends _______ by Beijing University，for which she ___ five times A．were admitted; had tried B．was admitted; had tried C．were admitted; has tried D．was admitted; tried 8．------I have bought you the books you want． ------Oh，good，I _______ afraid you had forgotten． A．was B．am C．had been D．have been 9．We _________ four thousand new words by the end of last year． A．had learned B．have learned C．learned D．will have learned 10．Helen _______her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband ______home． A．has left；comes B．left；had come C．had left；came D．had left；would come 11. My father _________ to the hospital when I hurried home. A. had gone B. went C. had been taken D. had been sent 12. ----- Jim, ________ you _________ your homework? ----- Yes, of course, but I ________ it late bed time. A. do do; finished B. did do; had finished C. have done; had finished D. have done; finished 13. You ____ football after school. Why not go home and do your homework first? A. always played B. are always playing C. have always played D. have always been playing es 14. Ever since Picasso’s painting went on exhibit, there ____ large crowds at the museum every day. A. is B. has been C. have been D. had been 15. ---What do you think of my suggestion? --- Sorry. What’s that? I _____ about something else. A. was thinking B. thought C. am thinking D. had thought Ⅱ. Fill in the blanks according to the meanings of the sentences by using tenses of the verbs. 1. How many English songs ___________ she __________ (learn) by the end of last month?、 2. Hardly _______ I ______ (get) on the bus when it started to move 3. He __________________(read) the book before he was ten years old. 4. She said she ___________________ (see) the film before. 5. Our English teacher _________________ (teach) English in Guangxi for ten years before he came to No.113 Middle School. 6. By the end of last month, they _________________(complete)the bridge . 7. No sooner ________ I _______ (go) out than he came to see me. 89. The classroom _______________ (clean) before we ___________ (get) there yesterday. 10. ________ the boy ___________ (finish) his homework before you saw him? 11. When we got to the station, the train _____________ already _____________. (leave) 12. The book __________ by the end of last month. (finish) 13. When I got back to the shop , my bag _________________ (take) away by someone else. 14. When I arrived at the cinema, the film _________________ (be )on for ten minutes. 15. ---What’s that terrible noise? ---The neighbors ______ (prepare) for a party. 16. The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympics ______ ( complete) by 2006. 17. The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, ______ (visit) a museum when the earthquake struck. 18. ---Mr. Johnson didn’t turn up at the meeting yesterday morning, did he? --- No. We __________ (wait) till twelve o’clock. A whole morning was wasted. 19. ---Why haven’t you asked her to come here? ---She _______ (do) an important experiment when I found her and she ________ (not, finish) it. 答案： Keys: Ⅰ. 1-5 CBCBB 6-10 BBAAC 11-15. DDBCA Ⅱ. 1. had learnt 2. had got 3. had read 4. had seen 5. had taught 6. had completed 7. had gone 8. had gone 9. had been cleaned, got 10. Had finished 11. had left 12. had been finished 13. had been taken 14. had been on 15. are preparing 16. will have been completed 17. was visiting 18. were waiting 19. was doing, hasn’t finished
补充练习： 一、选择填空： 1 We ＿＿ four thousand new words by the end of last year． A had learned B have learned C learned 2 Helen ＿＿＿＿ her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband ＿＿＿home．（NMET’96） A has left; comes B left；had come C had left；came 3 I lost the book I ＿＿＿＿． A have bought B bought C had bought 4 The bus had gone when I ＿＿＿＿ at the bus stop. A have arrived B arrived C had arrived 5 Tom ＿＿＿＿ of visiting his grandmother, but the bad weather made him change his mind． A has thought B thought C had thought 6 —Did you meet Tom at the airport？ —No，he ＿＿＿ by the time I ＿＿＿ there. A．has left; got B had left；arrived C left；had got 7—Why didn’t Tom attend the meeting yesterday? —He ＿＿＿ Beijing． A．has gone to B had gone to C went to 8 Finally Mary was admitted by Beijing University, for which she ＿＿＿ five times. A had tried B tried C has tried 9 —I have bought you the books you want． —Oh，good. I ＿＿ afraid you had forgotten． 二、用括号中所给单词的适当形式填空： 1 How many English songs _________she ______ (learn) by the end of last month? 2 By the time my parents reached home yesterday, I _______________ dinner already. (cook) 3 He ____________ to play the piano before he was ten years old. (learn) 4 She said she _________ the film before. (see) 5 Our English teacher _______________ (teach) English in Guangxi for ten years before he came to No.113 Middle School. 6 By the end of last month, they _______________ the bridge. (complete) 7 What _____ Lord Kelvin ______ by the time he was ten? (do) 8 He asked where I ____________ (go) during the summer vacation. 9 The classroom ____________ (clean) before we ______ (get) there yesterday. 10 _____ the boy ______________ his homework before you saw him? (finish) 11 When we got to the station, the train ________ already _______. (leave) 12 We ______________ the book by the end of last month. (finish) 13 When I got back to the shop , someone else _____________ (take) my bag away. 14 When I arrived at the cinema, the film _____________ (be on) for ten minutes. 15 Jack ___________ in Egypt for eight years before he moved to Guangzhou. (live) 16 He didn’t asked me to speak at the meeting, because I _____ already ______ (refuse) to do it. 17 Last week I didn’t return the book to the library, because I ______________ (not finish) it. 18 Tom said that he ________________ (visit) his Japanese friends the day before. 19 Mrs. Smith said she ________ to Xi’an twice. (be) 20 She asked me if I __________ (read) the story .