世界上为何没有出现更多女富豪

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2017年1月7日 作者:纽约时报双语新闻(By ROBERT FRANK)

天狼星卫星广播和一家药物公司的创始人玛蒂娜·罗思布拉特,对一些介绍女孩进入技术和工程界的项目表示支持。美国赚钱最多的一些人就来自这些领域。
天狼星卫星广播和一家药物公司的创始人玛蒂娜·罗思布拉特,对一些介绍女孩进入技术和工程界的项目表示支持。美国赚钱最多的一些人就来自这些领域。 (Martine Rothblatt, who founded Sirius Satellite Radio and a pharmaceuticals company, supports programs that introduce girls to technology and engineering, fields that include some of the country’s top earners. )

在最近几十年里,女性在就业和薪水阶梯上快速上升。但是,只有一小部分人达到了顶层,而且她们的进步速度可能在放缓。

新研究表明,在20世纪八九十年代取得大幅进步之后,进入赚钱最多的1%的女性人数开始停滞不前。据三位经济学家撰写的一篇论文称,女性只占那1%的16%,这个数字在过去10年里基本没有变化。而且,她们仅占赚钱最多的0.1%的11%。

根据该研究所使用的收入定义,2014年,进入赚钱最多的1%的门槛是39万美元,而0.1%的门槛是132万美元。

“在收入阶梯上越往上走,女性的比例越低,”加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)的经济学教授加布里埃尔·祖克曼(Gabriel Zucman)说。他是这篇分析1%赚钱最多人士性别比例的论文的一位作者。“这表明,收入顶端存在一种最基本的与性别相关的不平等。”

以财富为衡量标准的亿万富翁和百万富翁的世界也依然由男性主导。据研究公司Wealth-X称,在全世界的近2500名亿万富翁中,只有294名(约占12%)是女性。

Wealth-X称,女性亿万富翁的增长速度仅为男性的一半。百万富翁中的女性比例甚至在缩小:2015年,在全世界范围内,资产超过3000万美元的女性人数减少了,尽管同等资产的男性人数增多了。

当然,女性在富人圈里占据越来越多的领地。按照某些衡量标准,在美国及世界各地,现在的富有或高收入女性比从前更多。据《福布斯》杂志(Forbes)的统计,在2000年,地球上共有11名女亿万富翁;到2016年,共有190名(《福布斯》和Wealth-X对女性亿万富翁的统计方式有所不同)。

然而,打破“钻石天花板”似乎正变得越来越困难。根据祖克曼和另外两位经济学家(分别是巴黎经济学院[Paris School of Economics]著名的托马·皮克提[Thomas Piketty]以及加州大学伯克利分校的伊曼纽尔·赛斯[Emmanuel Saez])为非营利组织美国国家经济研究局(National Bureau of Economic Research)撰写的那篇论文,从1980年至2000年,女性在赚钱最多的1%人口中所占的比例涨了两倍,达到9.2%。但是,从2000年至2014年,她们所占的比例仅增长至11.5%。

祖克曼预计,按照目前的速度,需要再过近100年,女性才能占到赚钱最多的1%人中的一半。“我们需要很长时间才能在极富人群中实现性别平等,”他说。

这种增速放缓与女性在更广泛的劳动力领域中取得的进步形成鲜明对比。从1962年至2014年,工作年龄女性的税前收入中位数上升了4倍多,达到2万美元。这份研究论文称,它依然远远低于男性的税前收入中位数3.5万美元——这个数字从1964年到现在基本没有变化(该论文对收入的定义是“劳动收入”,不包括资本收益和其他某些财富来源)。

如果将继承财富排除在外,男女的财富差距更大。据Wealth-X称,在全世界的294名女性亿万富翁中,只有49名是自己白手起家的。剩下那些人的财富部分或完全来自于继承。

那么,为什么财富金字塔顶端的女性如此之少?需要做出哪些改变?

价值数以百万美元计的小皮姆语言指导公司(Little Pim)创始人、语言培训企业家保罗·皮姆斯勒(Paul Pimsleur)的女儿朱莉娅·皮姆斯勒(Julia Pimsleur)说,企业高层和风险资本界的歧视依然是一股固执的力量。

“这个体系存在无意识的偏见,”她说,“我相信,有很多男人希望在高层看到更多女性。”

“我认为,他们并不是都积极地想要排斥女性,”她还说,“但依然存在一些歧视。”

不过,皮姆斯勒也建议,想要达到顶端的女性可能需要调整自己的优先顺序。

“她们必须在头脑中把自己置于顶端,”她说,“必须从‘我要成为首席执行官’开始。然后是,‘我要怎样做才能实现目标?’然后,你才能开始成为那个人。”

她说,认为女性不像男性那么注重追求巨额财富的观念具有误导性。

“女性想要获得三重胜利——金钱、意义和流动性,”她说。“她们想挣大钱。但她们也想做某种增加价值的事情。她们想要自由和灵活性。”

翻译:王相宜

Why Aren’t There More Female Billionaires?

Women have been rapidly climbing the employment and wage ladders in recent decades. But only a small fraction have made it to the top rungs — and their progress may be slowing.

New research shows that after making big strides in the 1980s and ‘90s, the number of women breaking into the top 1 percent of earners has stalled. Women account for only 16 percent of the 1 percent, a number that has remained essentially flat over the past decade, according to a paper by three economists. And they account for only 11 percent of the top 0.1 percent of earners.

The threshold for making the top 1 percent of earners in 2014 was $390,000, while it was $1.32 million for the top 0.1 percent, according to the definitions of income used in the research.

“The higher up you move in the income distribution, the lower the proportion of women,” said Gabriel Zucman, an economics professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and an author of the paper, which analyzes gender in the 1 percent. “It shows that there is a fundamental form of inequality at the top related to gender.”

The world of billionaires and millionaires, measured by wealth, also remains a predominantly male club. Of the nearly 2,500 billionaires in the world, only 294 (around 12 percent) are women, according to Wealth-X, a research firm.

The number of female billionaires is growing only half as fast as the male billionaire population, Wealth-X says. And women may even be losing ground in the millionaire population: Worldwide, the number of women worth $30 million or more declined in 2015, even as the equivalent male population grew.

Of course, women are making inroads among the rich. By some measures, there are more wealthy or high-earning women than ever, in the United States and around the world. In 2000, there were 11 female billionaires on the planet, according to Forbes; by 2016, there were 190. (Forbes and Wealth-X have different tallies for the female billionaire population.)

Yet cracking the “diamond ceiling” appears to be getting harder. According to the paper that Zucman and two other economists wrote for the nonprofit National Bureau of Economic Research — his collaborators were the well-known Thomas Piketty of the Paris School of Economics and Emmanuel Saez of Berkeley — women tripled their share of the top 1 percent of earners from 1980-2000, to 9.2 percent. Yet from 2000-14, their share grew only to 11.5 percent.

At the current pace, Zucman predicted, it would take nearly 100 years for women to make up half the population of the top 1 percenters. “We are still a long, long way from gender equality at the top,” he said.

The slowdown stands in stark contrast to the gains made by women in the broader workforce. Median pretax income for working-age women more than quintupled between 1962 and 2014, to $20,000. It’s still far below the median pretax income for men, which, at $35,000, has stayed roughly the same since 1964, according to the research paper. (The paper uses “labor income” as its definition of income, which does not include capital gains and certain other sources of wealth.)

The women’s wealth gap would be even worse without inherited fortunes. According to Wealth-X, of the 294 female billionaires in the world, only 49 are self-made. The rest owe their fortunes partly or entirely from an inheritance.

So why are there so few women at the top of the wealth pyramid? And what needs to change?

Julia Pimsleur, founder of the multimillion-dollar Little Pim language-instruction company and daughter of language training entrepreneur Paul Pimsleur, said discrimination in the executive suite and the world of venture capital remained a stubborn force.

“There is unconscious bias in the system,” she said. “I believe there are many men who would like to see more women at the top.”

“I don’t think they’re all actively trying to keep women out,” she added, “but some discrimination still exists.”

Yet Pimsleur also advised that women who want to reach the top may need to adjust their priorities.

“They have to put themselves at the top in their minds,” she said. “It has to start with ‘I’m going to be the CEO.’ And then it’s, ‘What do I need to do to get there?’ And then you go out and become that person.”

She said the notion that women simply didn’t place as much importance on pursuing outsize wealth was misleading.

“Women want the triple win — money, meaning and mobility,” she said. “They want the big dollars. But they also want to do something that adds value. And they want freedom and flexibility.”