川普最后一次免除对伊核制裁 并施加新制裁

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2018年1月13日 作者:美国之音(VOA News)

伊朗重水核设施 (资料照)
伊朗重水核设施 (资料照)

美国总统川普星期五批准对伊朗实施新的制裁,但他没有重新实施按照伊朗核协议而暂停实施的严厉制裁。

川普表示,他是最后一次免除伊朗的核制裁,以给国会和欧洲盟国120天的时间改进协议,否则将面临美国放弃这项协议。

川普总统提出“修改这项协议灾难性的缺陷”,包括伊朗同意立即向国际检查人员开放所有的地点,并得到德黑兰永远不开发核武器的保证。

根据白宫所说,任何新的伊朗协议还将必须包括伊朗的弹道导弹并且无限期限制其核技术突破。

川普在一份声明中说,“没有这样一份协议,美国将不会再次为了维持伊核协议而免除其制裁。而且如果在任何时候当我判断这样一份协议没有希望达成时,我将立即退出这项协议。”

另外,美国财政部针对伊朗一些企业和个人因为侵犯人权而实施了新的制裁。制裁针对的是14个伊朗实体和个人,其中最著名的是伊朗司法总监萨迪格·阿米利·拉里贾尼。美国财政部把拉里贾尼和针对“伊朗人民犯下的严重侵犯人权罪行”联系在一起。

在黑名单上的其它实体包括伊斯兰革命卫队的网络部门。川普政府坚称,该部门切断了示威者用来通讯的社交媒体网络。

川普行政当局的官员表示,这些制裁是反击伊朗“肆无忌惮”和“破坏稳定行为”的更广泛努力的组成部分,伊朗的这些行为包括与镇压抗议者有关的行动。本月在伊朗的抗议活动中至少有21人丧生。

根据法律,行政当局必须每90天向国会认证伊朗是否遵守了2015年伊朗与国际社会就限制其核项目达成的协议。

去年10月,川普总统拒绝认证协议,他说,德黑兰违反了核协议的精神。这项协议是在2015年达成的,全称为《联合全面行动计划》,但是没有重新实施签署协议前对伊朗中央银行和能源工业实施的严厉制裁。

延长免于执行对伊制裁的决定是在川普总统星期四晚间就伊朗问题会晤了他的国家安全团队之后做出的。

这一决定可能会让希望对伊朗政府采取更加强硬措施的流亡伊朗人组织和人权活动人士感到失望。美国政府对伊朗很多城市发生的反政府抗议活动表达了强烈支持,美国总统此前多次严辞抨击伊核协议。

美国财政部长努钦星期四在白宫记者会上回答美国之音提问的时候表示,川普的行动会引起德黑兰的注意。

努钦财长说,“总统一直非常明确地表示,伊朗核协议的很多方面需要作出修改。在伊核协议外存在大量活动,不管是弹道导弹还是其它议题,我们将继续实施制裁,这些问题在《联合全面行动计划》范围之外。”

设在纽约的外交关系协会中东问题高级研究员雷伊·塔基亚表示,川普努力在支持希望保留这份协议的盟国和有关伊朗在中东地区破坏稳定的情报评估之间做出艰难的平衡。 星期四,参与达成伊核协议的欧盟各国明确表示,他们坚定支持《联合全面行动计划》。这让川普陷入外交孤立。在布鲁塞尔的一次会晤之后,欧盟外交政策主管莫盖里尼表示,尽管对伊朗开发弹道导弹以及在中东地区的其它活动存在担忧,但是那些问题需要单独区别处理。 伊朗一直坚持其核项目只用于和平目的。伊朗外长扎里夫参加了欧盟的会议,但是没有和其他国家外长一道与记者见面,但是他星期三谴责美国实施破坏性政策。

该协议得到联合国安理会决议的认可,并受到国际原子能机构的监督。该机构认定伊朗一直在履行协议中包括限制铀浓缩以及拆除设备等规定的义务。

Trump Waives Iran Nuclear Sanctions for Last Time

United States President Donald Trump approved new sanctions on Iran Friday, while stopping short for a third time of re-imposing harsh sanctions intended to push Tehran to give up nuclear weapons research.

Trump said he was waiving the nuclear sanctions for the last time in order to give Congress and European allies 120 days to improve the agreement or face U.S. abandonment of the pact.

The president's proposals to "fix the deal's disastrous flaws" include Iran's agreement to open all sites immediately to international inspectors and an assurance from Tehran that it never develop a nuclear weapon.

According to the White House, any new Iran deal would have to cover Iran's ballistic missiles and limit its nuclear breakout period indefinitely.

"In the absence of such an agreement, the United States will not again waive sanctions in order to stay in the Iran nuclear deal. And if at any time I judge that such an agreement is not within reach, I will withdraw from the deal immediately," Trump said in a statement.

Additionally, the Treasury Department imposed new measures that target Iranian businesses and individuals for human rights abuses. They were imposed on 14 Iranian entities and individuals, the most prominent of whom is the head of the country's judiciary, Sadegh Amoli Larijani. The department has linked Larijani to "the commission of serious human rights abuses" against Iranian people.

Among the other blacklisted entities are the cyber unit of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, which the Trump administration maintains has stifled social media networks that demonstrators can use to communicate.

The administration official said the sanctions are part of a broader effort to counter Iran's "reckless" and "destabilizing behavior," including actions related to the crackdown on protesters, at least 21 of whom have been killed this month.

"The United States will not stand by while the Iranian regime continues to engage in human rights abuses and injustice," Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin said in a statement. "We are targeting the head of Iranian regime, including the head of Iran's judiciary for the appalling treatment of its citizens, including those imprisoned only for exercising their right to freedom of peaceful assembly and for censoring its own people as they stand up in protest of their government."

By law, the administration must certify to Congress every 90 days whether Iran is complying with a 2015 agreement it signed with the international community to limit its nuclear program.

In October, Trump refused to certify the agreement, saying Tehran had failed to live up to the spirit of the 2015 deal, known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, but held off on re-imposing severe sanctions on Iran's central bank and energy industry that had existed previously. Trump is expected to reaffirm the agreement next week.

Trump did not restore the sanctions on the banking and energy sectors, which were rescinded with the intent of inducing Iran to curb its nuclear program.

The decision to extend sanctions relief to Iran came after the president met with his national security team on the Iran question late Thursday.

The decision is likely to disappoint exile groups and human rights activists who had hoped for tougher measures from an administration that has voiced strong support for anti-government protests in many Iranian cities and a president who has harshly criticized the Iran nuclear agreement.

"Those are completely unrealistic and non-starter demands, and Donald Trump knows this very well," Trita Parsi, President of National Iranian American Council, told VOA. "There is no circumstance Iranians would accept putting permanent restrictions on their program that no other country has on its programs."

Mnuchin, in answer to a VOA question at Thursday's White House press briefing, suggested that Trump's actions would capture the attention of Tehran.

"The president has been very clear that many aspects of the Iran deal need to be changed," he said. "There are many activities outside of the Iran deal, whether it be ballistic missiles, whether it be other issues, that we will continue to sanction, that are outside the JCPOA."

A senior fellow for Middle East Studies at the New York-based Council on Foreign Relations, Ray Takeyh, said Trump is attempting a difficult balancing act between supporting allies who want to preserve the accord and intelligence estimates of Iran's destabilizing role in the Middle East.

"Iran's domestic repression, regional aggression and proliferation are a problem, and the challenge is trying to balance these concerns with a punitive policy," he said in a telephone interview.

Takeyh, who was formerly a State Department adviser on Iran, said the quandary facing Trump is that in the absence of European support, his ability to sanction the Tehran government is limited.

"How do you unravel an arms control agreement that has the support of a number of parties that were members to it, even though that arms deal is profoundly defective?" he asked.

On Thursday, European parties to the deal made clear they firmly support the JCPOA, leaving Trump diplomatically isolated. After a meeting in Brussels, European Union foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini said while there are concerns about Iran's development of ballistic missiles and other activities in the Middle East, those should be dealt with as a separate issue.

Iran has maintained its nuclear program is solely peaceful in nature. Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif attended the EU meeting, but did not appear alongside the other diplomats as they spoke to reporters. On Wednesday, however, Zarif accused the United States of implementing destructive policies.

The JCPOA was put in place through a United Nations Security Council resolution with monitoring by the International Atomic Energy Agency, which has certified that Iran is complying with its responsibilities that include limiting its enrichment of uranium and dismantling equipment.