What happens if you don't get enough sleep? Randy Gardner, a high school student in the United States, wanted to find out. He designed an experiment on the effects of sleeplessness for a school science project. With doctors watching him carefully, Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours and 12 minutes. That's eleven days and nights without sleep.
What effect did sleeplessness have on Gardner? After 24 hours without sleep, Gardner started having trouble reading and watching television. The words and pictures were too blurry (模糊). By the third day, he was having trouble doing things with his hands. By the fourth day, Gardner was hallucinating (产生幻觉). For example, when he saw a street sign, he thought it was a person. He also imagined he was a famous football player. Over the next few days, Gardner's speech became so slurred (不清楚) that people couldn't understand him. He also had trouble remembering things. By the eleventh day, Gardner couldn't pass a counting test. In the middle of the test he simply stopped. He couldn't remember what he was doing.
When Gardner finally went to bed, he slept for 14 hours and 45 minutes. The second day he slept for twelve hours, the third night he slept for ten and one-half hours, and by the fourth night, he had returned to his normal sleep schedule.
Even though Gardner recovered quickly, scientists believe that going without sleep can be dangerous. They say that people should not repeat Randy's experiment. Tests on white rats have shown how serious sleeplessness can be. After a few weeks without sleep, the rats started losing their fur(皮毛). And even though the rats ate more food than usual, they lost weight. Eventually the rats died.
During your lifetime, you will probably spend 25 years or more sleeping. But why? What is the purpose of sleep? Surprisingly, scientists don't know for sure. Some scientists think we sleep in order to replenish(补充)brain cells. Other scientists think that sleep helps the body to grow and to relieve stress. Whatever the reason, we know that it is important to get enough sleep.
16. Randy Gardner studied the effects of over over-sleeping.
A Right B Wrong C Not Mentioned
17. During the experiment, Gardner slept for two hours every night.
A Right B Wrong C Not Mentioned
18. During the experiment, Gardner had trouble speaking clearly.
A Right B Wrong C Not Mentioned
19. It took four days for Gardner to recover from the effects of the experiment.
A Right B Wrong C Not Mentioned
20. Going without sleep is not dangerous for white rats.
1 Dreams play an important role in our lives. If they can be correctly interpreted, we can come to understand ourselves better. Here, we look at four common dreams and what they potentially symbolize.
2 I can see their laughing faces…laughing at me. But they aren't as smart. If they were, they'd be up here flying with me! This dream has both positive and negative connotations(涵义). On the positive side, the dream may express a strong desire to travel and get away from everyday routine. It can be interpreted as a powerful desire to achieve. On the other hand, this dream can mean the person has a problem or is afraid of something and they wish to escape. The dream could represent an inferiority complex(自卑情结), which the dreamer attempts to escape from by putting themselves up above others.
3 I'm moving fast now, but it's still behind me. Doesn't matter how fast I go, I still can't escape. Although this is a traditional symbol of health and vitality(生命力) like the first one, it can also suggest the dreamer is trying to escape from danger. Usually, fear is the dominant emotion. By running hard, the dreamer can possibly escape the threat. However, they can also stumble(蹒跚) or worse still stop moving altogether. This makes the fear even more terrifying(恐怖的). One possible interpretation suggests that the person is under pressure in their everyday life.
4 1'm sweating and my heart is beating. I'm trapped in my own bed. In this dream, the person is often standing on a high, exposed place such as on the top of a tower, or on the edge of a cliff. The overwhelming (强烈的) feeling changes from anxiety to a loss of control. There is nothing to stop the person, and the feeling as they go over the edge can be horrifyingly (恐怖地) real. Fortunately, just before hitting the ground, the dreamer awakens with a sense of enormous relief. This dream suggests that the dreamer is afraid of losing control and has a fear of failure or even death.
5 The wind is pushing me and I slip. There's nothing I can do . . . nothing I can hold on to. This symbol is associated with fear: suddenly the dreamer loses all power of movement. They try hard to move their arms and legs，but they simply cannot. Frozen in a terrifying situation with no escape，they become more and more terrified as the seconds go by. Another frequent context for this dream is failing to do something in public, often something which you are normally very good at, such as your job. Not only is this extremely embarrassing, but it also shows a deep-seated phobia (恐惧) of losing a job and a livelihood.
23. Paragraph 2_______
24. Paragraph 3________
25. Paragraph 4________
26. Paragraph 5_______
A Dream of climbing trees
B Dream of diving into the water
C Dream of running hard
D Dream of falling down
E Dream of being pushed away
F Dream of flying into the air
27. If a person puts himself up above others in the dream, he may____.
28. If a person dreams of being chased by others, he may ____.
29. If a person dreams of going over the edge of a cliff, he may ____.
30. If a person dreams of failing to do something in public, he may _ ___.
A be afraid of losing his job in real life
B feel inferior in reality
C feel lonely in everyday life
D feel tired in real life
E be under pressure in everyday life
F be afraid of losing control in real life
第一篇 Attitudes to AIDS now
Most people say that the USA is making progress in fighting AIDS, but they don't know there's no cure and strongly disagree that "the AIDS epidemic is over." a new survey finds.
The findings, released Thursday by the Kaiser Family Foundation, reassure activists who have worried that public concern about AIDS might disappear in light of recent news about advances in treatment and declines in deaths.
"While people are very optimistic about the advances. they're still realistic about the fact that there is no cure", says Sophia Chang, director of HIV programs at the foundation.
The Kaiser survey, like a recent USA TODAY Gallup Poll, does find that the number of people ranking AIDS as the country's top health problem has fallen. In the Kaiser poll, 38% say it's the top concern, down from 44% in a 1996 poll; in the Gallup Poll, 29% say AIDS is No.1, down from 41% in 1992 and 67% in 1987.
Other findings from Kaiser, which polled more than 1,200 adults in September and 0ctober and asked additional questions of another 1.000 adults in November：
52% say the country is making progress against AIDS, up from 32% in 1995.
51% say the government spends too little on AIDS.
86% correctly say AIDS drugs can now lengthen lives; an equal number correctly say that the drugs are not cures.
67% incorrectly say that AIDS deaths increased or stayed the same in the past year; 24% know deaths fell.
Daniel Zingale, director of AIDS Action Council, says, "I'm encouraged that the American people are getting the message that the AIDS epidemic isn't over. I hope the decision-makers in Washington are getting the same message… We have seen signs of complacency (得意).''
31 Most people in the USA believe that
A AIDS is no longer an epidemic.
B AIDS is killing more people than before-.
C there is still no cure for AIDS.
D advances have been made in treating AIDS
32 Before the findings released by the Kaiser Family Foundation，activists worried that
A the government is too optimistic about the cure of AIDS.
B the Americans might not concern about AIDS any more.
C the deaths caused by AIDS may increase.
D scientists may not find cures for AIDS.
33 The results of the Kaiser survey and those of Gallup PolI are
C both wrong.
D both unrealistic.
34 More than 50% people in the Kaiser poll agree that
A advances in AIDS treatment are too slow.
B AIDS is their top concern.
C the country spends too little on AIDS.
D AIDS deaths fell sharply.
35 The word "message" in the last paragraph means
第二篇 Sprained (扭伤) Ankle
One of the most common injuries teenagers and adults experience is a sprained ankle. A sprain occurs when the ligaments(韧带) of a joint are twisted(扭伤) and possibly torn. Ligaments are bands of fibers that hold the bones of a joint in position. A sprain can occur from a sudden twisting at the joint, or a stretching or tearing of the fibers of the ligaments. The injured area usually swells(肿胀) and becomes black and blue. Stepping off the sidewalk at the wrong angle or having one foot land in a hole while walking or running can leave you rolling on the ground in pain with an ankle on fire! If you cannot walk without experiencing intense pain, you must seek medical help. If the pain is manageable, and you can walk, here are three words to help you remember how to treat yourself:
As soon as there is injury to that ligament, there will be a certain amount of bleeding under the skin. Once the blood pools around the damaged blood vessels, swelling occurs. The pressure from the swelling results in additional stress and tenderness to the region. In order to reduce the degree of swelling, lie down as soon as possible and keep the ankle elevated so that it is actually higher than your heart. Next, to reduce blood distribution and keep bleeding(流血) to minimum, apply a cold pack. After 20 minutes, take the pack off, wait half an hour, and then reapply. This can be several times a day for a total of three days.
Never leave a cold pack on for more than 20 minutes at a time. Reducing the temperature in that area for an extended period of time signals the body to increase blood flow to raise the body temperature! Therefore, one accidentally triggers(引起) more blood distribution to the affected area by leaving a cold pack on for too long! Finally, bandage the angle. Be careful not to wind it too tightly; doing so can restrict blood flow and cause harm to the entire foot.
36. A sprain is caused by
A blood vessels being hurt in the foot
B ligament fibers of a joint being twisted
C constantly changing body temperature
D elevating one's ankle
37. The black-and-blue symptom of a sprain is due to
A pressing one's ankle
B a tight bandage
C applying a cold pack
D bleeding under the skin
38. The word "it" in paragraph 2(line5) refers to
39. Once the initial cold pack is removed, what is to be done?
A Begin bandaging the ankle
B Wait 30 minutes and then reapply the ice pack for 20 minutes
C Keep the ankle in a position lower than your heart
D wait 20 minutes and then reapply the ice pack for 30 minutes
40. The main idea of the passage is to explain
A how to treat a sprained ankle
B how a sprain occurs
C how to bandage an injured foot
D how to reduce the temperature of a wounded area.
第三篇 How to Be a Successful Businessperson
Have you ever wondered why some people are successful in business and others are not? Here's a story about one successful businessperson. He started out washing dishes and today he owns 168 restaurants.
Zubair Kazi was born in Bhatkal, a small town in southwest India. His dream was to be an airplane pilot, and when he was 16 years old, he learned to fly a small plane.
At the age of 23 and with just a little money in his pocket, Mr. Kazi moved to the United States. He hoped to get a job in the airplane industry in California. Instead, he ended up working for a company that rented cars.
While Mr. Kazi was working at the car rental (祖赁的) company, he frequently ate at a nearby KFC restaurant. To save money on food, he decided to get a job with KFC. For two months, he worked as a cook's assistant. His job was to clean the kitchen and help the cook. "I didn't like it," Mr. Kazi says, "but I always did the best I could."
One day, Mr. Kazi's two co-workers failed to come to work. That day, Mr. Kazi did the work of all three people in the kitchen. This really impressed the owners of the restaurant. A few months later, the owners needed a manager for a new restaurant. They gave the job to Mr. Kazi. He worked hard as the manager and soon the restaurant was making a profit.
A few years later, Mr. Kazi heard about a restaurant that was losing money. The restaurant was dirty inside and the food was terrible. Mr. Kazi borrowed money from a bank and bought the restaurant. For the first six months, Mr. Kazi worked in the restaurant from 8 a.m. t0 10 p.m., seven days a week. He and his wife cleaned up the restaurant, remodeled the front of the building, and improved the cooking. They also tried hard to please the customers. lf someone had to wait more than ten minutes for their food, Mrs. Kazi gave them a free soda. Before long the restaurant was making a profit.
A year later, Mr. Kazi sold his restaurant for a profit. With the money he earned, he bought three more restaurants that were losing money. Again,'he cleaned them up, improved the food, and retrained the employees. Before long these restaurants were making a profit, too.
Today Mr. Kazi owns 168 restaurants, but he isn't planning to stop there. He's looking for more poorly managed restaurants to buy. "I love it when I go to buy a restaurant and find it's a mess," Mr. Kazi says. "The only way it can go is up."
41 When Mr. Kazi was young, his dream was to
B own a restaurant.
C be an airplane pilot.
D become a good cook.
42 Mr. Kazi decided to work with KFC to
A learn how to cook.
B save money for a car.
C save money on food.
D learn how to run a restaurant.
43 Mr. Kazi became the manager of a new restaurant because
A his co-workers praised him.
B he was a good cook.
C he knew how to run a restaurant.
D he worked very hard.
44 To save a failing restaurant, Mr. Kazi did all the following things, EXCEPT to
Some holidays are well-known all around the world. Among them are New. Year's Eve celebrations. Also common are days in honor of love and friendship, like Valentine's Day. Each country has its own special holidays, too, often to mark important events In its history. Schools, banks, and government offices all close on days like these. _ (46) A few of them are really very strange.
Of course, they are not strange to the people who celebrate them. Perhaps that is because the celebrations have long traditions. Consider April Fool's Day, for example, No one knows when or why it began. Today it is celebrated in many countries-France, England, and Australia, among others. On this day, people play practical jokes. _ (47) The ones who laugh are the ones playing the jokes. The people they fool often get angry. Does celebrating this day make sense to you?
Dyngus Day in Poland seems strange, too. On this day, it is traditional for boys to pour water over the heads of girls. Here is the strangest part：They do it to girls they like. Other unusual celebrations take place in a single city or town. A holiday called La Tomatina is celebrated in Bunol, Spain. Every year, in late August, big trucks carry more than 200,000 pounds of tomatoes into this little town. (48) For two hours, people in the streets throw tomatoes at each other. Everyone ends up red from head to toe.
August 10 marks the start of the Puck Fair, an lrish festival with a very unusual tradition. People from the town of Killorglin go up into the mountains and catch a wild goat. (49)
There are also some celebrations that are really strange. In the United States, sometimes one person gets an idea for a new holiday and tries to get others to accept it. Whose idea was Public Sleeping Day? That one is on February 28. It may seem strange, but it sounds like more fun than the one on February9. (50)
Do you like the idea of inventing a new holiday? lf you do, then you will want to mark March 26 0n your calendar. That is Make Up Your Own Holiday Day.
A. Some people have fun imagining new holidays.
B. That is supposed to be Toothache Day.
C. Then begins the world's biggest food fight.
D. They bring him back to town, put a crown on his head, and make him king for three days.
E. Jokes are supposed to be funny, but these jokes do not make everyone laugh.
F. Some of the days people celebrate, however, are less serious.
Influenza has been with us a long time. According to some Greek writers 51 medical history, the outbreak of 412 B.C. was of influenza. The same has been suggested of the sickness 52 swept through the Greek army attacking Syracuse in 395 B.C. Influenza is a disease that moves most quickly among people living in 53 conditions, hence, it is likely to attack armies.
54 the nineteenth century there were five widespread outbreaks of influenza. The last of the five 55 in 1889 and marked the beginning of the story of influenza in our time. 56 the recent outbreak, it started in Asia.
For more than forty years before that outbreak, influenza had steadily __57__ and was believed to be dying out. A new group of outbreaks was 58 by the great outbreak of 1889-1890 and for the next quarter of a century influenza remains a constant threat.
In April 918 flu broke among American troops stationed in France. It quickly spread through all the 59 but caused relatively few deaths. Four months later, however, a second outbreak started which _60___ to be a killer. It killed not only the old and already sick but also healthy young adults. It 61 through every country in the world, only a few distant islands in the South Atlantic and the Pacific remaining __62__. It brought the life of whole countries to stop, food 63 stopped and work loss was very great. Before the great outbreak ended, it had killed 64 15 million people. Thereafter, there have been several great outbreaks throughout the world. It is thus __65__that influenza is a terrible infection that we have to pay more attention to.
51、A by B on C to D with
52、A where B that C why D who
53、A local B good C crowded D rich
54、A Since B During C Among D For
55、A changed B happened C stopped D suffered
56、A Like B As C Along D Before
57、A increased B interrupted C decreased D kept
58、A introduced B controlled C prevented D reported
59、A armies B villagers C farmers D enemies
60、A ceased B wanted C proved D failed
61、A got B put C went D looked
62、A uncounted B unused C untouched D unchanged
63、A sources B shortages C purchases D supplies
64、A last B most C all D least
65、A clear B strange C impossible D wise
1 A eventua11y 和 finally 同义，都表示 "最后、最终" 的意思，又如: They met with difficulties and dangers on their way，but eventually they got to the destination. 他们一路上遭遇种种险阻，但最终到这了目的地。luckily 幸运的，certainly 肯定地，naturally自然地。
2 C propose 和 suggest 是同义词，都是 "建议、提议、提出"的意思，注意用法略有不同，两者后面都可以跟动词的 -ing 形式，但是 propose 后面可以用动词不定式，suggest 则不可以。可以说 We propose have a meeting，但是不可以说 We suggest to have a meeting。test 测试、检验，announce 宣布、公布。
3 C rely on 是个很常用的动词短语，意为"依靠、依赖"，和 depend on 同义。
4 D explore 是 "探索、探险、摸索" 的意思，investigate 除了常用的"调查"这层意思 外，也具有‘探索’这样的意义，本句的意思是:在会议上我们探索了扩充的可能性。
5 C brief 这个形容词可以解释"简单的"，也有"简短的、短暂的"的意思，如 a brief talk/introduction 简短的谈话/介绍.a brief visit 短暂的访问。
6 D vary 解释 "变化、改变"，故用 change 替换。本句的意思是: 我的医生说我的饮食应该更多样化。又如: The prices for computers vary a lot from shop to shop. 电脑的价格每家商店的差别很大。
7 D a lot 这里做程度状语，表示 "很大、很多"，故应用 greatly 替换，又如:He a1ways talks a lot when others are a11 quiet. 别人都不说话时，他总是高谈阔论。
8 A thorough 的意思是"彻底的、透彻的"，thorough research 则是 "深入透彻的研究" ， 故可以用 careful research 来替代。basic 基础的，major 主要的，social 社会的。
9 A 这句话就是我们常说的: 金钱是万恶之源。汉语里说"根源"，"根"和"源"是同义的，和英语里的 "roof" 和 "cause" 恰好分别对应。
10 B impact 和 influence 是同义词，也解释 "影响"，又如: the impact of modern technology on interpersonal relationships 现代技术对人际关系带来的影响。
11 A convert 的意思是 "改变、转化"。turn 则是具有同样意义的一个更为常用的单词，两者后面都跟 into 来表示 "变为....."， 又如: Solar energy has been successfully converted/turned into mechanica1 energy. 太阳能被成功地转化成机械能。The priest converted/turned him from a Buddhist into a Christian. 那神父把他从一个佛教徒变成了个基督徒。reduce 减少, reform， 改造。